Effects of Titanium and Silicon Nanoparticles and Super Absorbent Polymer on Morphological and Functional Traits of Cumin Plant under Drought Stress
This study was performed to investigate the effects of using titanium and silicon nanoparticles (Si and TiO2 NPs) and super absorbent polymer (SAP) on morphological and functional traits of cumin plant under drought stress conditions. An experiment was conducted as a factorial split-plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Water availability was considered as the main factor at three levels of 50 (control), 100, and 150 (drought stress) ml evaporation from a Class A evaporation pan. Foliar application levels of Si and TiO2 NPs and SAP were regarded as the secondary factor. The main factor (drought stress) and the secondary factor, viz. different levels of Si and TiO2 NPs and SAP were each applied at two levels. Plant height, stem diameter, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, and grain yield were investigated in this study. Overall, the highest plant height, stem diameter, and shoot dry weight were obtained in the drought stress treatment of 50 mm evaporation from the pan with foliar application of Si and TiO2 NPs and the use of SAP. The highest grain yield, biological yield, shoot fresh weight (SFW), number of seeds per umbel, and number of umbels per plant were recorded in the treatment of 50 mm evaporation from the pan. centage of essential oil in irrigation stress treatment was obtained after 150 mm evaporationTherefore,foliar application of Si and TiO2 NPs and the use of SAP are recommended to improve plant height, stem diameter, and shoot dry weight under drought stress.