Role of Bio-Fertilizers in Agriculture
Worldwide human population growth presents a major threat to each people's food security as the land for agriculture becomes scarce and even decreased over time. It is therefore important that agricultural production be enhanced significantly in the next few decades in order to meet the growing demand for food by the increasing population. Too much reliance on chemical fertilizers for more crop yields ultimately destroys with considerable severity both the natural ecosystem and human health. The use of microbes as bio-fertilizers in the agricultural sector is considered to some degree an alternative to chemical fertilizers owing to their significant capacity for increasing productivity and food safety. Some microorganisms, like plant growth stimulating fungi, bacteria, cyanobacteria, etc., have shown bio-fertilizer-like behaviour in the farming sector. Extensive work on bio fertilizers has shown their potential to provide necessary quantities of to the crop in sufficient nutrients that have led to increased crop yields. The present analysis clarifies different mechanisms that bio-fertilizers have practiced to foster plant growth and also offers protection to different pathogens of plant.